Influence of squeeze-film damping on higher-mode microcantilever vibrations in liquid
Center for Cellular Imaging and NanoAnalytics, Biozentrum, University of Basel, Mattenstrasse 26, CH-4058, Basel, Switzerland
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Accepted: 13 November 2014
Published online: 12 December 2014
The functionality of atomic force microscopy (AFM) and nanomechanical sensing can be enhanced using higher-mode microcantilever vibrations. Both methods require a resonating microcantilever to be placed close to a surface, either a sample or the boundary of a microfluidic channel. Below a certain cantilever-surface separation, the confined fluid induces squeeze-film damping. Since damping changes the dynamic properties of the cantilever and decreases its sensitivity, it should be considered and minimized. Although squeeze-film damping in gases is comprehensively described, little experimental data is available in liquids, especially for higher-mode vibrations.
We have measured the flexural higher-mode response of photothermally driven microcantilevers vibrating in water, close to a parallel surface with gaps ranging from ~200 μm to ~1 μm. A modified model based on harmonic oscillator theory was used to determine the modal eigenfrequencies and quality factors, which can be converted into co-moving fluid mass and dissipation coefficients.
The range of squeeze-film damping between the cantilever and surface decreased for eigenfrequencies (inertial forces) and increased for quality factors (dissipative forces) with higher mode number.
The results can be employed to improve the quantitative analysis of AFM measurements, design miniaturized sensor fluid cells, or benchmark theoretical models.
PACS: 07.10.Cm (Micromechanical devices and systems) – / 46.40.Ff (Resonance and damping of mechanical waves) – / 07.79.-v (Scanning probe microscopes and components) – / 07.07.Df (Sensors (chemical – / optical – / electrical – / movement – / gas – / etc.); remote sensing) –
Key words: Microcantilever / Dissipation / Squeeze-film damping / Higher eigenmode / Photothermal excitation / Eigenfrequency / Quality factor / Fluid–structure interaction
© The Author(s), 2014