Controlling the process of muon formation for muon-catalyzed fusion: method of non-destructive average muon sign detection
Atmospheric Science, Department of Chemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Gothenburg, SE-412 96, Göteborg, Sweden
Accepted: 18 August 2021
Published online: 4 October 2021
The recent development of intense muon sources (Holmlid, Swedish Patent SE 539,684 C 2 (2017)) is crucial for the use of muon-catalyzed fusion reactors (L. Holmlid, Fusion Science and Technology 75, 208 (2019)) which are likely to be the first generation of practical fusion reactors. For this purpose, only negative muons are useful. For existing sources where negative muons can be ejected (if not formed) preferentially, it is necessary to know the amount of negative muons to determine and optimize the fusion reactor efficiency on-line. Here, a method is developed to measure the absolute muon flux and its average sign without collecting or deflecting the muons. The muons from the patented muon generator have an energy of 100 MeV and above and an intensity of 1013 muons per laser pulse. Here, the detection of the relativistic laser-induced muons from H(0) is reported with a standard particle beam method, using a wire coil on a ferrite toroid as detector for the relativistic particles. The coil detection method shows that these relativistic particles are charged, thus not photons, neutrinos or neutral kaons. This makes the coil method superior to scintillator methods and it is the only possible method due to the large muon intensity. If an equal number of positive and negative mouns passed the coil, no signal would be observed. The signal at the coil in the case shown here is due to relativistic positive muons as concluded from a signal charge sign verification in the coil.
PACS: 67.63.Gh – / 29.25.-t – / 29.40.-n – / 84.32.Hh –
Key words: Ultra-dense hydrogen / Ferrite toroid / Current coil
© The Author(s) 2021. licensee Springer on behalf of EPJ
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